September 18, 2006

Human Genes

The human genome contains not 100,000 genes but around 25,000 genes, little less than double the 13,601 genes of a fruit fly and barely little more than the roundworm’s 19,098. Moreover, there is hardly any uniqueness to the human genes. They are akin to 99 percent of the chimpanzees, and 70 percent of the mouse. Human genes, with the same functions, were found to be identical to genes of other vertebrates, as well as invertebrates, plants, fungi, even yeast. The findings confirm that there is one source of DNA for all life on Earth. It enables scientists to trace how more complex organisms evolved, genetically, from simpler ones, adopting at each stage a few more genes contributed by viruses culminating with Homo sapiens. The genomic loci and length of certain types of small repetitive sequences are highly variable from person to person, which is the basis of DNA fingerprinting and DNA paternity testing technologies.

Scientists have found that the human genome contains 223 genes that do not have the required predecessors on the genomic evolutionary tree. In the evolutionary progression from bacteria to invertebrates (such as the lineages of yeast, worms, flies or mustard weed – which have been deciphered) to vertebrates (mice, chimpanzees) and finally modern humans, these 223 genes are completely missing in the invertebrate phase. The answer lies in viral transfer of genes that makes humans a unique species. These 223 genes make an enormous difference. The Y chromosome defining all the male human characteristics contains only 78 genes. The difference between a human and a chimp is around 300 genes. An analysis of the functions of these genes through the proteins that they spell out, conducted by the Public Consortium team and published in the journal Nature, shows that they include not only proteins involved in important physiological but also psychiatric functions. One of the genes is expressed strongly in the developing neo-cortex during weeks seven to nine of pregnancy. It is expressed in cells that have a fundamental role in the design and development of the mammalian cortex. Moreover, they are responsible for important neurological enzymes that stem only from the mitochondria portion of the DNA – the so-called “Eve” DNA that humankind inherited only through the mother-line, all the way back to a single Eve. It is these psychiatric and neurological functions that make humans what they are and this discussion possible. Our brains are three times larger than our closest relatives, the chimps.

The Public Consortium team, conducting a detailed search, found that some 113 genes (out of the 223) “are widespread among bacteria” – though they are entirely absent even in invertebrates. The remaining 100 genes will be found in bacteria as well as extra chromosomal elements with further study, since that is the source from which they emerge, the bacteria being the storehouse and virus the vectors that accomplish the transfer. An analysis of the proteins that the enigmatic genes express showed that out of 35 identified, only ten had counterparts in vertebrates (ranging from cows to rodents to fish). 25 of the 35 were unique to humans and thus must necessarily be carried by bacteria as extra chromosomal elements to be inserted at the right opportunity.

The Bible asserts that the God said: “Let us fashion the Adam in our image and after our likeness.” Is there a symbolic meaning to the statement? Yes it means that these genes are bits of code that came from beings that already existed in the cosmos. In USA the patenting of genes are allowed by individuals and private companies. Companies own several of yours so that they can profit from them. Human greed is all blinding to the point of hilarity.

Humans have not stopped evolving. It is an ever ongoing process. The work that God set out to do has not stopped. Nicholas Wade reported the results of a study in, New York Times, March 2006 Providing evidence that humans are still evolving. Researchers have detected some 700 regions of the human genome where genes appear to have been reshaped within the last 5,000 to 15,000 years. Influenced by Darwinism the researcher presumed that this reshaping is due to natural selection. That is not the case. It is simply viral action. The genes that show this evolutionary change include some responsible for the senses of taste and smell, digestion, bone structure, skin color and brain function. Dr. Pritchard, a population geneticist at the University of Chicago who headed the study lists selected genes that include five affecting skin color. The selected versions of the genes occur solely in Europeans and are presumably responsible for pale skin. Anthropologists have generally assumed that the first modern humans to arrive in Europe some 45,000 years ago had the dark skin of their African origins, but soon acquired the paler skin. It is a correct assumption. The first humans that were just different from chimps were dark. Since then some groups have acquired additional genes causing changes. The virus causing this change disappeared before reaching Africa. However the human species has not yet changed hence sexual compatibility still persists between the dark and pale groups. Sunlight has very little to do with this skin color. If it were so South Africans of European origin would have become black and blacks in Sweden would be blonde. However, the bacteria that store the pale color gene probably do have a better rate of survival in cooler climates. The tanning effect of sunlight is only a temporary change and not a genetic one.

Dr. Pritchard also detected selection at work in brain genes, including a group known as microcephaly genes because, when disrupted, they cause people to be born with unusually small brains. Dr. Bruce Lahn, also of the University of Chicago, theorizes that successive changes in the microcephaly genes may have enabled the brain to enlarge in primate evolution, a process that may have continued in the recent human past. Last September, Dr. Lahn reported that one microcephaly gene had recently changed in Europeans and another in Europeans and Asians. He predicted that other brain genes would be found to have changed in other populations.

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